Ted Thornton
History of the Middle East Database
Benchmarks in the History of Syria

Origins of Key Geographical Terms

 

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Crucial Pre-Modern Benchmarks

Early Medieval Period, 661-1091

First Arabic printing press, 1706

Syrian Umayyad Monuments

Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem

al-Aqsa Mosque, Jerusalem

                                                                                                   

1832: Egypt invades Syria.

1840: British ultimatum to Egypt.

1866: Syrian Protestant College founded (later known as the American University in Beirut).

1916: Secret Talks by France and Great Britain on dividing the Middle East between them (Sykes-Picot Agreement).

1918: British capture Syria.

1919, July: Syrian National Congress demands independence.

1919, August:  Report of the King-Crane Commission.

1920: French overthrow King Faisal; beginning of French Mandate rule.

1925-1927: Syrians rebel against French Mandate rule.

1941: British occupy Syria, Lebanon, and Iraq.

1943: Shukri al-Quwwatli becomes Syria's first president. 

1946: French leave Syria and Lebanon; Baath Party achieves formal recognition.

1948: War with Israel; three coups take place in Syria. (see also Golan Heights)

1958-1961: Syria united with Egypt.

1963, March: Baath Party seizes power in Syria.

1963, August: Syria and Israel skirmish.

1964, November: Syria and Israel skirmish.

1966: Baathist purge.

1967, June: War with Israel; Syria's Golan Heights occupied.   More on the Golan.

1970: Syrian involvement in Jordan's "Black September."

1971-2000: Presidency of Hafez al-Asad.

1973: War with Israel.

1976, August: Syria intervenes in Lebanon.

1981, December: Israel annexes Syria's Golan Heights. More on the Golan.

1982: Hama uprising.

1986: Hindawi Affair.

1989, Fall: Taif Accord ending civil war in Lebanon. Syria pledges to help keep the peace.

1989: Easing of Cold War tensions impacts Syria.

1996: Syria feels threatened by Israel-Turkey defense pact. 

1999: Three way power play between Hizbullah, Syria, Israel.

2000, February: Fresh tensions between Israel and Syria.

2000, June: Syria's President Hafez al-Asad dies and is succeeded by his son, Bashar.

2001, March: Private banks permitted in Syria.

2001, April: Israeli air attack on Syrian positions.

2001, June: Syria pulls troops back from Beirut to Bekaa Valley.

2003, spring: American pressure on Syria.

2003, October: Israeli jets bomb Syrian targets.

2004, March: Syrian Kurds riot.

2004, May: American boycott against Syria.

2004, September: Syrian political pressure on Lebanon.

2005, February: Syria blamed for assassination of Lebanese former PM Hariri. (see also)

2005, April 26: The last Syrian troops withdraw from Lebanon.

2005, June: Signs of turmoil inside Syria.

2005, October 31: Syria chastened in UN for obstructing investigation into Hariri assassination.

2006, January 1: Ba'ath Party expels former V.P. Khaddam.

2006, February 11: President Bashar al-Asad reshuffles his cabinet.

2006, May 17: U.N. calls on Syria to cease meddling in affairs of Lebanon and forge formal ties.

2006, June 28: Israeli jets "buzz" areas of Syria.

2007, Winter: Rumors of secret peace talks between Israel and Syria.

2007, May 27: President Assad elected to new term.

2008, October: Syria establishes diplomatic ties with Lebanon.

2008, October 27: U.S. raid on Syria.

 

Why does Syria seek to influence what happens in Lebanon? -- See Taif Accord, 1989.

 

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email: tthornton@nmhschool.org

Last Revised: October 30, 2008