Ted Thornton
History of the Middle East Database
Benchmarks in the History of Israel

Origins of Key Geographical Terms


History by Region or State


History by Time Period


Special Topics









Origin of the name "Israel" Origin of the term "Zion"

The Arab-Israeli Wars


Palestinian Intifadas:      1987, 2000

Summer 2006 War
Peace Initiatives
Jerusalem's Holy Sites (BBC)

Hebrew Bible Period.

Fourth through Nineteenth Centuries: European Persecution of Jews.

1897: Zionist movement founded by Theodor Herzl.

1909, April:  "Hashomer" founded to protect Jewish settlements in Palestine from attacks by Arabs.

1915 - 1930

1917: Balfour Declaration.

1919: King-Crane Commission.

1928-1929: "Wailing Wall" Disturbances.

1930-1947: Later Mandate Period

1947, November 29: United Nations Partition Plan.


1948, May 14: Proclamation of the State of Israel.

1948: May 15: First Arab-Israeli War.

1948, June 1: Altalena Incident.

1949, January-July: General Armistice Agreements (GAA) signed.

1953, Summer: Israel begins moving offices from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem.

1956, October 29-November 6: Second Arab-Israeli War.

1967, June 5-10: Third ("Six Day") Arab-Israeli War.

1967, July: Allon Plan to hold on to occupied territories. (see also)

1967, November 22: U.N. Resolution 242.

1968, March 21: Battle of Karameh.

1969, March: Egypt begins war of attrition against Israel.

1970, August 7: Rogers Plan ends war of attrition.

1970: "Black September" in Jordan.

1973, October 6-26: Fourth Arab-Israeli (Yom Kippur/Ramadan) War.

1973, October 22: U.N.  Resolution 338.

1973: Likud Party formed.

1974 to 1989

1974-1975: Israel and Egypt sign Sinai I and Sinai II Agreements.

1976, March 30:  "Land Day" demonstrations

1977, June: Likud Party wins its first national elections. Begin becomes Prime Minister.

1977, November 19: Egypt's President Sadat and Israel's PM Begin meet in Jerusalem.

1978: Israel invades Lebanon.

1979, March 26: Egypt and Israel sign peace treaty.

1981, June 7: Israel bombs and destroys Iraq's nuclear reactor at Osirak.

1982, April 25: Israel completes withdrawal from Sinai.

1982, June 6: Israel invades Lebanon.

1985: Partial Israeli withdrawal from Lebanon.

1987-1993: First Intifada. 

1988, Summer: Mass immigration of Soviet Jews into Israel begins.

1990-1992:  Gulf Wars Period (1990-1992)

1991: Madrid Conference affirms policy of  "Land for Peace."

1993-1994: Oslo Period

1993: Oslo Peace Accord   Assessment of Oslo.


1995, November 4: Prime Minister Rabin assassinated.

1996, May: Likud wins elections, new policy of "Peace for Peace."

1998: Wye Plantation Agreement.


2000, May 24: Israel withdraws all troops from Lebanon.

2000, July: Failure at Camp David.

2000, September:  Second Intifada breaks out.

2001-2002 Post Nine-Eleven


2003, April: "Roadmap" Peace Plan.

2003, October: Geneva Accord.

2004, April: U.S. Reversal on Settlements.


2005, February:  Sharm al-Sheikh Truce.

2005, August: Israeli Withdrawal from Gaza.

2005, October: Truce ends.

2005, November 20: Ariel Sharon leaves Likud to found new Party called Kadima ("Forward").

2006, January 4: Israeli politics in confusion after Sharon's stroke. Summary Bio of Ariel Sharon.

2006, January 24: Ehud Olmert, acting P.M., calls for Israeli withdrawal from parts of West Bank.

2006, March 28: Olmert's Kadima Party wins parliamentary elections.

2006, April 17: Palestinian suicide bombing in Tel Aviv.

2006, Summer: War.

2006, September 4: Government announces new settlements.

2006, November: Israeli army operation in north Gaza to stop rocket attacks.

2006, November: Israeli "Peace Now" says West Bank land held illegally.

2006, December: Argument in Israel over school textbooks.

2006, December: Israeli Arabs argue for non-Jewish state.

2006, December: Israel announces first new Jewish settlement in West Bank since 1992.

2007, Winter: Rumors of secret peace talks between Israel and Syria.

2007, January 29: Palestinian suicide bomber strikes in Eilat.

2007, August: Israel evicts settlers from buildings in Hebron.

2007, November 27: Annapolis conference.

2007, December: U.S. criticizes Israel on new settlement activity in wake of Annapolis conference.

2008, March 6: Eight Jewish yeshiva students killed by Palestinian gunman in Jerusalem.

2008, June:  Israel-HAMAS six month truce begins.

2008, July 30: Prime Minister Olmert announces he will step down.

2008, September 17:  Foreign Minister Tzipi Livni assumes leadership of Kadima.  PM Olmert resigns.

2008, December 5:  Israeli soldiers remove settlers from disputed property in Hebron.

2008, December 12: Foreign Minister Livni provokes furor over suggestion of transfer.

2008, December 27: New Israeli offensive in Gaza commences.



Palestinian Territories, Peace Initiatives in the Arab-Israeli Conflict,and BBC: Israel and the Palestinians in Depth

Articles on Relationship Between United States and Israel (via ProQuest - must be on NMH Virtual Desktop to access):

Steven Erlanger, "In the Middle East, Tests for an Old Friendship," New York Times, Nov. 13, 2006.

David D. Kirkpatrick, "For Evangelicals, Supporting Israel is 'God's Foreign Policy'," New York Times, Nov. 14, 2006.

BBC: "Passions That Shape Life in Jerusalem"


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email: tthornton@nmhschool.org

Last Revised: January 16, 2009